The Spainard has been charged with violent conduct by the Football Association following the Capital One Cup semi-final against Liverpool on Tuesday.
The Spain striker is accused of stamping on Liverpool defender Emre Can in the 12th minute of the 1-0 victory.
He faces a three-match ban and could miss Saturday’s league match with Manchester City at Stamford Bridge.
The player has until 18:00 GMT on Thursday to respond to the charge.
Costa, 26, is being charged with the first of two alleged stamps that were not seen by referee Michael Oliver.
He also appeared to stand on central defender Martin Skrtel in the Liverpool penalty box in the second half.
The first-half incident involving Can took place close to the technical area and prompted an angry response from the Liverpool player.
Reds manager Brendan Rodgers said at his post-match press conference: “He could easily hurdle over the young player and he directs his studs right on to his ankle, which could’ve been nasty.”
Chelsea boss Jose Mourinho said after the game that he feels the Brazil-born Spain international is being targeted unfairly.
The Blues, who won 2-1 on aggregate, will face the winners of Wednesday’s second semi-final involving Tottenham or Sheffield United in the final at Wembley
on Sunday, 1 March. [BBC]